Tag Archives: Republic Day

26th January in Dalit History – Constitution of India came into force ending Manusmriti/Vedic laws


26 January 1950: The Constitution of India came into force ending the British Sovereignty over India as a Dominion status. Dr. B R Ambedkar is the Father of the Constitution of India and who gave the country the best constitution in the world – thus laying the foundation for the Word’s biggest and vibrant democracy.

After the transfer of power by the Birtish to Indian hands, Nehru and Patel wanted to invite Sir Ivor Jennings, an internationally-known constitution expert of those times, for drafting Constitution of India, who had drafted the Constitutions of many Asian countries. M K Gandhi, however advised them not to look for a foreigner, when they had within India an outstanding legal constitutional expert, Dr. B R Ambedkar. This is how the choice to draft the free India’s constitution fell on Dr. Ambedkar.

So the Congress leaders desired rapprochement with Dr. Ambedkar, a man of outstanding caliber, in order to make use of his gifts and sharp intellect in the building of the nation and the preservation of hard won, new-born independence. In a most conciliatory and appreciative mood they discussed the issue, talking at times to each other over phone, about the inclusion of Dr. Ambedkar in the Cabinet. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru then called Dr. Ambedkar to his chamber and asked him whether he would accept the office of Law Minister in his Cabinet.

The offer came to Dr. Ambedkar as a great surprise. “I was”, he said on 10 October 1951 (after his resignation from the Cabinet), “in the opposite camp and had already been condemned as unworthy of association when the interim Government was formed in August, 1946. I was left to speculate as to what could have happened to bring about this change in the attitude of the Prime Minister. I had my doubts. I did not know how I could carry on with those who had never been my friends. I had doubts as to whether I could, as a Law Member, maintain the standard of legal knowledge and acumen which had been maintained by those who had preceded me as Law Ministers of the Government of India. But I kept my doubts at rest and accepted the offer of the Prime Minister on the ground that I should not deny my cooperation when it was asked for in the building of our nation”.

In a most patriotic spirit, Dr. Ambedkar did not, therefore, lag behind to play his important, constructive and dignified role in the building of the nation. He did rise to the occasion and gave his whole-hearted honest consent to Nehru. Forgetting the past bickering, as the service to the country was uppermost in his heart.  The Drafting Committee consisted of (1) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar – Chairman (2) N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, (3) Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar (a distinguished jurist), (4) K.M. Munshi (a distinguished jurist), (5) Syyed Mohd. Saadull, (6) N. Madhav Rao (in place of B.L. Mitra) and (7) D.P Khaitan (T Krishnamachari, after Khaitan’s death in 1948).

Dr. Ambedkar spared no efforts and put his heart in drafting of the Constitution. Despite his ill – health he worked ceaselessly day in and day out, almost singly, concentrating his energies in that direction. Somewhat of a recluse, he remained cooped up for  hours together daily, whether at the Parliament House or in the confines of his bungalow at 1, Hardinge Avenue, Delhi – no rest, no recreation, no going out even for a moment. The drafting of the Constitution flowed heavily in his head, blood and viens all the time.

The Drafting Committee was in effect charged with the duty of preparing a Constitution in accordance with the decisions of the Constituent Assembly on the reports made by the various Committees appointed by it such as the Union Powers Committee, the Union Constitution Committee, the Provincial  Constitution Committee and the Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal Areas etc. The Constituent Assembly had also directed that in certain matters the provisions contained in the Government of India Act, 1935 should be followed except on points which were referred to in the Dr. Ambedkar’s letter of 21 February 1948, in which he had referred to the departure made and alternatives suggested by the Drafting Committee. As such the Drafting Committee faithfully carried out the directions given to it.

The Draft Constitution as settled by the Drafting Committee was introduced in the Constituent Assembly by Dr. Ambedkar on 4 November 1948. He moved for its consideration the same day, and in doing so, drew attention to the important features of the Constitution and dealt with the criticisms at length against it. The motion moved by Dr. Ambedkar, “that the Constitution as settled by the Assembly be passed”, was then put to vote by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, President of the Constituent Assembly.

Supporing the motion for the adoption of the Constituton the whole Consituent Assembly was illuminated by the grand commentary, and speaker after speaker – representing various groups and organizations – paid glowing tributes to Dr. Ambedkar for his lucid, able, symmetrical speechless and the brilliant analysis of the Consitution. They expressed their highest appreciation, with gratitude, of ther skill, industry and intellectual qualities with which he applied himself to the tremendous task of drafting the Constitution.

On 5 November 1949, Shri T. T. Krishnamachari, a member of the committee said: “Though a committee of seven members was formed, one of then resigned. Another was nominated in his place. Another member died. No one took his place. One of the members was very busy with government work. Owing to ill health two other members were far away from Delhi. As a result, Dr. Ambedkar alone had to carry the entire burden of preparing the draft of the Constitution. The work he has done is admirable”.

In one of the debates on 25 November 1949, a day before the Constituent Assembly adopted the Consitution of India, Dr. Ambedkar said: “On 26th January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics, we will have equality and in social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value.

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How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life? If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment else those who suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of democracy which this Constituent Assembly has so laboriously built up.

“I feel that the constitution is workable, it is flexible and it is strong enough to hold the country together both in peacetime and in wartime. Indeed, if I may say so, if things go wrong under the new Constitution, the reason will not be that we had a bad Constitution. What we will have to say is that Man was vile.”

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Welcome to the real India!


Everyone on Twitter and Facebook is busy welcoming Obama to India. Here is my welcome to Mr. President.

Welcome to India – the land of caste system.

Welcome to India – where we didn’t invent anything but founded caste system that has killed millions of people since invented.

Welcome to India – where we don’t allow fellow human beings to enter the same temples and where we worship animals and plants but mistreat fellow human beings.

Welcome to India – where Dalit kids at schools are forced to do toilet cleaning work.

Welcome to India – where Dalit students in schools are purified by sprinkling cow urine on them.

Welcome to India – where Dalit women are seen and treated as only sex objects.

Welcome to India – where Dalit people are killed just because they had same name as some upper caste people had.

Welcome to India – where Dalit homes are separated by walls in the villages.

Welcome to India – where Dalits have to remove their shoes while passing in front of upper caste homes.

Welcome to India – where Dalit students’ scholarships aren’t issued on time.

Welcome to India – where Dalit homes are burnt daily, just because they are Dalit.

Welcome to India – where food cooked by Dalit women isn’t accepted by so called upper caste students.

Welcome to India – where Dalit kids are made to sit separately in schools.

Welcome to India – where Dalit women are paraded naked, raped and forced to commit suicide.

Welcome to India – where Dalits are offered menial jobs and exploited at workplaces.

Welcome to India – where Dalit students seats at colleges are filled by upper castes having fake Dalit certificates.

Welcome to India – where Dalit students seats in colleges are left unfilled.

Welcome to India – where there are separate barber shops for Dalits.

Welcome to India – where Dalits have to sip tea from separate tea cups.

Welcome to India – where there appear caste wise columns in matrimonial pages.

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Welcome to India – where Dalits have to wait for years to get justice in courts.

Welcome to India – where Dalits are shown as degraded characters in movies.

Welcome to India – where Dalits have separate office timings.

Welcome to India – where to Dalits’ home there is no postal delivery, just because upper caste Postman don’t want to go there.

Welcome to India – where Dalits and Muslims are denied renting homes, even in metro cities.

Welcome to India – where Dalit and Muslim are kept in jails for years without any crime.

Welcome to India – where shankracharyas are caught for the involvement in rapes, murders and killings.

Welcome to India – where there are still thousands of devidasis (temple prostitutes).

Welcome to India – where Dalits are forced to work as manual scavengers.

Welcome to India – where statues of Dalit leaders are maligned or destroyed.

Welcome to India – where  21 Dalits were slaughtered by the Ranvir Sena in Bathani Tola, Bhojpur in Bihar and no justice was delivered ever.

Welcome to India – where 23 Dalits were massacred in Jehanabad (Bihar) by Ranvir Sena and no justice was delivered.

Welcome to India – where Kherlanji, Badaun etc massacres happened.

Welcome to India – where police can rape innocent girls and still be free.

Welcome to India – where Melavalavn massacre, TN, happened. 6 Dalits were killed by so called upper caste people.

Welcome to India – where 16 Dalits were killed in Muthanya incident, Kerala.

Welcome to India – where 58 innocent Dalits were killed at Laxmanpur Bathe, Bihar and no justice was delivered.

Welcome to India – where Bant Singh case of Punjab happened.

Welcome to India – where 42 innocent Dalits were killed in Kilvenmani massacre, TN, by the gang of upper caste landlords.

Welcome to India – where Dalits are boycotted in villages.

Welcome to India – where Dalits change their names/surnames to escape caste discrimination.

Welcome to India – where Dalit kids are forced to play in separate play grounds.

Welcome to India – where job openings come with – ‘Dalits need not to apply’.

Welcome to India – where Dalits, Muslims can’t buy flats in a colony and ads come with – ‘only for Brahmins’.

The list of atrocities and crimes committed against Dalits and minorities is endless… Welcome to the real India!

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25th January in Dalit History – 23 Dalits were massacred in Jehanabad (Bihar)


25 January 1999:  Twenty three dalits were massacred in Jehanadad (Bihar) by Ranvir Sena.

In the Shanker Bigha massacre in Jehanabad (Bihar), 23 Dalits were killed by suspected Ranvir Senas. An FIR was lodged at Mehandia police station. There are 24 accused and 76 witnesses.The massacre took place 16 years ago when around 100 armed Ranvir Sena activists raided a dalit hamlet at Shankar Bigha village in central Bihar’s Jehanabad district on the night of January 25 — on the eve of Republic Day — and gunned down at least 23 villagers in cold blood while they were asleep in their mud-built houses and huts. The marauders had also set afire their houses before fleeing the scene. Of the dead, five were women and seven children — the youngest being six months old.

NDTV

On 14th January, 2015 a district court in Bihar’s Jehanabad acquitted all 24 men accused of being involved in the massacred because of the lack of evidence, including the fact that all of the witnesses turned hostile in court. . It is shameful that in 16 years courts, police, and administration couldn’t find WHO KILLED THOSE INNOCENT DALITS! We need proper inquiry into the case and culprits to be punished as soon as possible.

Source and Photo Credit – NDTV

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Dr. Ambedkar wallpaper/photos for Republic Day


Find more Images/Photos/Wallpapers/Articles/Books etc. at Velivada

This Cartoon, which was published in the year 1950, on 24th January, that is two days before the first Indian Republic day, in The Hindustan Times, drawn by the famous Cartoonist Enver Ahmed . Cartoon showing Mother India giving birth to a baby called The Republic of India and DOCTOR Ambedkar holding that baby in his hands and giving a gentle touch, while the other characters in the background (from Left to Right ) Constituent Assembly congress Party as Nurse, t he people, Jawaharlal Nehru , Babu Rajendra Prasad and Vallabhai Patel all of them are looking at the newly born baby with great anxiety .

This Cartoon, which was published in the year 1950, on 24th January, that is two days before the first Indian Republic day, in The Hindustan Times, drawn by the famous Cartoonist Enver Ahmed . Cartoon showing Mother India giving birth to a baby called The Republic of India and DOCTOR Ambedkar holding that baby in his hands and giving a gentle touch, while the other characters in the background (from Left to Right ) Constituent Assembly congress Party as Nurse, t he people, Jawaharlal Nehru , Babu Rajendra Prasad and Vallabhai Patel all of them are looking at the newly born baby with great anxiety .

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar among other dignitaries at India's first Republic Day parade.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar among other dignitaries at India’s first Republic Day parade.

Watch also – What US President Barack Obama said on Dr B R Ambedkar?

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What US President Barack Obama said on Dr B R Ambedkar?


President Obama recognized Dr. Ambedkar for his extraordinary contributions to India in his address to the Indian parliament in November 2010. Here is the part of the speech.

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Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and America


By Prof. Eleanor Zelliot

A talk at the Columbia University Ambedkar Centenary, 1991

Introductiory remarks

Dr. Ambedkar was one of the first (and one of the few) Indian leaders to be educated in the United States. I am not sure what influence his years at Columbia University in New York City had on his life, but I know we can be proud to claim some part of this remarkable man’s early development. Two of the qualities which mark his life and career – optimism and pragmatism – may have been enhanced by his contact with this country, which prides itself on its charactersitics of hope and practicality.

Also ReadDr. Ambedkar in Hungary and Dr. Ambedkar in Germany

The three years Ambedkar spent at Columbia, 1913-1916, awakened, in his own words, his potential. Columbia was in its golden age, and a list of Ambedkar’s professors reads like a catalog of early 20th-century American educators. The transcript of Ambedkar’s work at Columbia reveals that he audited many classes, more than he could have taken for grades, including such subjects as “railroad economics.” Later, Ambedkar wrote, “The best friends I have had in my life were some of my classmates at Columbia and my great professors, John Dewey, James Shotwell, Edwin Seligman and James Harvey Robinson. II (Columbia Alumni News, December 19, 1930).

Although it was Edwin Seligman, Professor of Economics, with whom Ambedkar kept in touch after he left Columbia and to whom he sent students when he taught at Sydenham college in Bombay, John Dewey seems to have had the greatest influence on him. Dewey’s pragmatic philosophy, his theories associated with optimistic, pragmatic American democracy, which preached (although it did not always practice) equality, no barriers to upward mobility, the use of machinery to produce leisure, and an attitude of respect for every individual.

Ambedkar’s first political party, the Independent Labour Party founded in 1936, took its name from British politics. But two things lessened the importance of Britain for Ambedkar: the colonial presence of the British in India, and the preference of British liberals for Gandhi and his non-violent direct action campaigns for independence over Ambedkar and the slow parliamentary path. And it also seems likely that American optimism, and the lack of an obvious class system in America, met a natural response in Ambedkar.

Ambedkar’s American contacts did not end when he left Columbia University in June, 1916, although one must admit they became minimal. He continued to correspond with Edwin Seligman, his mentor in Economics at Columbia, and occasionally recommended Indian students to Seligman. In 1930, Ambedkar wrote an article for the Columbia alumni magazine which reveals quite a sentimental attachment: “The best friends I have had in my life were some of my classmates at Columbia and my great professors, John Dewey, James Shotwell, Edwin Seligman and James Harvey Robinson.” In 1952, Ambedkar went back to Columbia to receive an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws and it is clear that this recognition of his work meant much to him. It was in this period of the early 1950’s that Ambedkar was publicly critical of India’s foreign policy of non-alignment, which seemed to him to cut India off from American contacts.

Also Watch – Tribute to Dr Ambedkar at Columbia University (USA)

I shall end this introduction with two stories, since this is not so much a scholarly tract as an essay which attempts to explore an American-Indian cultural interaction in a personal way. Mrs. Savita Ambedkar tells a touching story of Ambedkar’s happily imitating John Dewey’s distinctive classroom mannerisms – thirty years after Ambedkar sat in Dewey’s classes. It is impossible to find in Ambedkar’s life story any hint of a guru or a personality which dominated him, but here at least is a suggestion that he was fond of both Dewey the philosopher and Dewey the man.

Balchandra Mungekar, vice chancellor of Bombay University, points to a statue of B.R. Ambedkar at Columbia University

Balchandra Mungekar, vice chancellor of Bombay University, points to a statue of B.R. Ambedkar at Columbia University

The other story concerns a letter of recommendation written about Ambedkar by Edward Cannon, Professor of Political Economy in the University of London, to the head of Sydenham College, where Ambedkar applied for a teaching position in 1918. Professor Cannon wrote: “I don’t know anything about Ambedkar except that he came to do a thesis and attacked it and me in a way which showed he had quite extraordinary practical ability…. I rather wonder if he is a pure Indian; his character is rather Scotch-American.” There is absolutely no doubt that Ambedkar was pure Indian, and no one who knew his background and the history of his caste would assign any other nationality to him. But this depiction of his character as “Scotch-American” rather delights me. Ambedkar’s pragmatism, his wide-ranging intellectual interests, his realistic approach to social matters, his uncompromising attitude toward those he felt were his opponents – all these factors make his character and work very understandable to an American. Even his bitterness can be understood by an American who has seen social injustice at work in the midst of American democracy. I am tempted to end this introduction to my essay with the thought that American influence on Ambedkar really counted for very little. It is more likely that in those early years in America his own natural proclivities and interests found a healthy soil for growth, and the experience served chiefly to strengthen him in his life-long battle for dignity and equality for his people.


The American Experience of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Very few of India’s leaders have been educated in America. In the British period, England and to a lesser extent France and Germany were the focal points for overseas study. Even today, when Indian students flock to America, their education is generally in the field of technology or science, and they do not enter politics. As far as I have been able to find out, only three men well known in public life have been thoroughly exposed to an American experience: Jay Prakash Narayan; the late Chief Minister of the Punjab, S. Pratap Singh Kairon; and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. An American inevitably wonders what effect his country has had on the lives and thinking of these men.

The Columbia University conferred an honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws on Dr.Ambedkar

The Columbia University conferred an honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws on Dr.Ambedkar

Also check – LL.D. Degree Certificate of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar from Columbia University

It is clear that J. P. Narayan’s direct contact with Amecican poverty during the Depression era and with American radical thinkers somewhat influenced the development of his socialist attitudes. It is possible that Kairon learned some of his expertise with mass politics from his interval in America. In the case of Dr. Ambedkar, the influence seems to be chiefly in developing his commitment to a pragmatic, flexible democratic system. Ambedkar spent the years from 1913 to 1916 at Columbia University in New York City. There is little material on his political thought from the pre-1913 period with which to compare his post-1916 writings, but even so I would like to suggest that the American experience did influence the thought and action of this unusually gifted and innovative son of Bharat.

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