Category Archives: Today in History

26th December in Dalit History – B’day of Annai Menambal Shivaraj

Annai Meenambal Shivaraj was born 26 December at Rangoon in Burma. She completed her F.A in 1917 from Ranggon College, Ranggon. She returned to Madras and got married to N.Shivaraj in 1918, who was a renowned Dalit leader. She was actively involved in politics with her husband. Her entry into politics started in 1928 with her speech in a public welcoming Simon commission. She was the first Scheduled Caste woman to become member of Madras Corporation representing Madras University senate. She was the leader of South Indian Scheduled Castes federation (SCF). She bestowed the title ‘Periyar’ (great one) to self respect movement leader E.V.Ramasamy.

Annai Menambal Shivaraj

Annai Menambal Shivaraj

She presided over the SCF women’s conference held on 23 September 1944 in Madras, which was attended by Dr.Ambedkar. She also presided over the All India SCF women’s conference held in Bombay on 6 May 1945. She was the honorary magistrate for Madras province, member of post war rehabilitation committee, director of Scheduled castes cooperative bank, leader of Nellikuppam Parry company labourers, senate member of Annamalai university. She was active in public service till 1980. She is fondly called as ‘Annai’ Meenambal (Mother) by Dalits. She died on 30 November 1992 at the age of 92. Her son was Dayashankar IPS (Retd.). Very little known fact is Mrs.D.Sabitha IAS, Principal Secretary to Tamilnadu government, School education department is annai Meenambal’s grand daughter.


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22nd November in Dalit History – B’day of Jalkari Bai

Jalkari Bai was born on 22nd November 1830 in village Bhojalla on Balaji Marg. His father was Sadova Singh and mother named Dhania but some authors say her father was named as Mool Chand & mother Jamuna Devi. They were agriculturists, belonging to Kori Caste of Untouchables having  Laria Gotar.  Kori Caste has a glorious history and Kories are said to have been rulers of this country . Shamba Asur  Maharaj  was a Kori ruler as also revered  Yashodhara wife of Gotam Budha was too from Kori Caste. How this so warrior and prosperous Kori peoples were reduced to a unknown position is a mystery. Jalkari Bai also nicknamed as Chaloria was the only child of her parents and she lost her mother at a very young age. So she was brought up by her father with utmost care, love and affection. Jalkari Bai grew into a strong, courageous, beautiful girl.
She was an Indian woman soldier who played an important role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 during the battle of Jhansi. She was a soldier in the women’s army of Queen Laxmibai of Jhansi.

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24th September in Dalit History – Poona Pact

Poona Pact, Agreed to by Leaders of Caste-Hindus and of Dalits, at Poona on 24-9-1932

The following is the text of the agreement arrived at between leaders acting on behalf of the Depressed Classes and of the rest of the community, regarding the representation of the Depressed Classes in the legislatures and certain other matters affecting their welfare

1. There shall be seats reserved for the Depressed Classes out of general electorate seats in the provincial legislatures as follows: –

Madras 30; Bombay with Sind 25; Punjab 8; Bihar and Orissa 18; Central Provinces 20; Assam 7; Bengal 30; United Provinces 20. Total 148. These figures are based on the Prime Minister’s (British) decision.

2. Election to these seats shall be by joint electorates subject, however, to the following procedure –

All members of the Depressed Classes registered in the general elec- toral roll of a constituency will form an electoral college which will elect a panel of tour candidates belonging to the Deparessed Classes for each of such reserved seats by the method of the single vote and four persons getting the highest number of votes in such primary elections shall be the candidates for election by the general electorate.

3. The representation of the Depressed Classes in the Central Legislature shall likewise be on the principle of joint electorates and reserved seats by the method of primary election in the manner provided for in clause above for their representation in the provincial legislatures.

Dr. Ambedkar at the Round Table Conference

Dr. Ambedkar at the Round Table Conference


4. In the Central Legislature 18 per cent of the seats allotted to the general electorate for British India in the said legislature shall he reserved for the Depressed Classes.

5. The system of primary election to a panel of candidates for election to the Central and Provincial Legislatures as i herein-before mentioned shall come to an end after the first ten years, unless terminated sooner by mutual agreement under the provision of clause 6 below.

6. The system of representation of Depressed Classes by reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislatures as provided for in clauses (1) and (4) shall continue until determined otherwise by mutual agreement between the communities concerned in this settlement.

7. The Franchise for the Central and Provincial Legislatures of the Depressed Classes shall be as indicated, in the Lothian Committee Report.

8. There shall be no disabilities attached to any one on the ground of his being a member of the Depressed Classes in regard to any election to local bodies or appointment to the public services. Every endeavour shall be made to secure a fair representation of the Depressed Classes in these respects, subject to such educational qualifications as may be laid down for appointment to the Public Services.

(Adult franchise but reservation has been provided for Dalits on population basis, till 1960),

9. In every province out of the educational grant an adequate sum shall be ear-marked for providing educational facilities to the members of Depressed Classes,

Source –

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26th July (1902) in Dalit History – Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj ordered 50% reservation for backward classes

26th July (1902) in Dalit History – Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj of Kolhapur issued orders for reservation of 50% posts in the state services for the backward classes.

Read more about Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj – 

26th July

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25th July in Dalit History – Death anniversary of Phoolan Devi

25th July (2001) in Dalit History – Death anniversary of Phoolan Devi

विश्व इतिहास की श्रेष्ठ विद्रोही महिलाओं की ग्लोबल लिस्ट बनाते हुए दुनिया की सबसे बडी पत्रिका “टाइम मैगजीन” ने फूलन देवी को चौथे नंबर पर रखा। भारत से वे अकेली ही इस लिस्ट में हैं। इस लिस्ट में जॉन ऑफ आर्क से लेकर आंग सान सूकी तक कुल 17 नाम हैं।

फूलन देवी ने पुरुष और जाति सत्ता से प्रतिशोध का जो तरीका चुना, उसकी वैधानिकता पर बहस हो सकती है। पर वे दुनिया की श्रेष्ठ विद्रोही महिला थीं, इस बात में दुनिया को शक नहीं है। भारत के कुछ लोगों को बेशक शक है। जिन्हें शक है, भारत में विचार निर्माण वही करते हैं, इसलिए भारत में फूलन देवी के महत्व को स्वीकार नहीं किया जाएगा। फूलन देवी के जेल से बाहर आने के बाद मैंने इंडिया टुडे में उनकी रिपोर्ट छापी थी। 1994 की बात होगी।

एक ग़रीब मल्लाह की बेटी की विश्वस्तरीय मान्यता को स्वीकार कर पाना भारत के प्रभु वर्ग के लिए कोई आसान काम नहीं है।

Also read “I, Phoolan Devi – The autobiography of India’s Bandit Queen”


फूलन देवी के साहस का सम्मान करके अगर सरकार उन्हें भारत रत्न दे देती तो यह देश में बलात्कार की सनातन संस्कृति पर लगाम लगाने की दिशा में एक बडा क़दम होता। इस देश में बलात्कारी अगर किसी एक नाम से डरेगा, तो वह नाम फूलन देवी का ही हो सकता है। फूलन देवी जैसी कोई नहीं।

अमेरिका से लेकर ब्रिटेन में फूलन देवी का सम्मान हो ही रहा है। टाइम मैगजीन से लेकर गार्डियन तक में उनके नाम का डंका बज चुका है।

भारतीय गणराज्य के एक नागरिक की हैसियत से मेरी सरकार से माँग है कि फूलन देवी को भारत रत्न दिया जाए।

बलात्कारियों के मन में डर पैदा करना हो तो बेहतर प्रतीक यानी सिंबल क्या है? नारी उत्पीड़न के प्रतिरोध का चेहरा किसका हो?

निर्भया या फूलन देवी?

आपको एक ग़रीब मल्लाह की विद्रोही बेटी कैसे स्वीकार होगी? अब इससे क्या फर्क पड़ता है कि सारी दुनिया विश्व इतिहास की श्रेष्ठ विद्रोहिणी के तौर पर फूलन को सलाम करता है। दुनिया की सबसे लोकप्रिय ‘टाइम’ मैगजीन की नज़र में फूलन देवी श्रेष्ठ है। लंदन का जो ‘गार्डियन’ अखबार भारत के प्रधानमंत्री के मरने पर पर स्मृति लेख नहीं छापता, उसने फूलन पर स्मृति लेख छापा। वही फूलन, जो भारतीय गणराज्य के तत्कालीन राष्ट्रपति के आर नारायण की नज़र में ‘अन्याय के प्रतिकार का प्रतीक’ है।

लेकिन आप उसे कैसे स्वीकार करेंगे। आपके लिए तो वह मल्लाह है, डकैत है। है कि नहीं?

Written by – Dilip C Mandal on Facebook


25th July (2001) in Dalit History –

Death anniversary of Phoolan Devi. She did fight against the oppression of upper castes. She was ranked (4th) as one of most rebellious woman in the world by The Times magazine and she was the only one from India in that list.

25th July

Phoolan Devi

Phoolan Devi2

Phoolan Devi3

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13th July (1930) in Dalit History – All India Depressed Classes Association’s Executive Committee meeting at Shimla

13th July (1930) in Dalit History – All India Depressed Classes Association’s Executive Committee meeting was held at Royal Hotel,  Shimla

The meeting was attended by M.C. Rajah, G.A. Gawai, G.M. Thaware, B.C. Mandal, Devi Das Jatav, Bali Ram, Swami Achhutanand and Nanak Chand Dhuria. The committee decided not to accept the proposals of the commission without the absence of separate electorate.

13th July


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10th July (1945) in Dalit History – Dr. Ambedkar was selected as president of Bombay Municipal Worker’s Union.

10th July (1945) in Dalit History – Dr. Ambedkar was selected as president of Bombay Municipal Worker’s Union.

10th July 3

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9th July (1972) in Dalit History – Dalit Panthers was formed

9th July (1972) in Dalit History –  Dalit Panthers was formed

At the meeting organised on 9th July 1972 by Dalit youths at Siddharth Vihar, Bombay, the Dalit Panther formally came into existence.

Read also – The Dalit Panthers

9th july

Read also – 15th January in Dalit History – Death anniversary of Namdeo Dhasal, a founder of the Dalit Panthers

9th July Encyclopaedia of Dalits in India Movements


Source – Encyclopaedia of Dalits in India: Movements

Read also – Siddharth Vihar is gone. And with it, an important piece of Dalit history

The dominant Maratha caste, in Maharasthra had tightened its grip on important economic centers in rural agriculture – such as land development, banks, marketing federation, sugar factories – in the name of the co-operative movement. The movement was backed by the State.

This changed economic picture brought further misery to the dalits in the villages. The rich farmers and the bureaucracy controlled by them initiated a series of atrocities on the dalits. Untouchable, landless dalit labour fell prey to these atrocities. So did the worker in the dalit moevemnt, who raised his voice against them.

In cities and towns, the numbers of unemployed youth were increasing in droves aw a result of the capitalist system./ With the spread of education in the rural areas, there began to develop a class of educated dalit youth, who had hitherto been kept away from the local economic and political system. Their association with workers of the leftist movements in rural areas gave them the ability to understand the entire system.

In Bombay, Baburao Bagul and is young Dalit writer friends Daya Pawar, Arjun Dangle, Namdeo Dhasal, J.V. Pawar, Umakant Randhir, Ramdas Sorte and Prahlad Chendwankar met and had discussions for hours. The young generation was influenced by Baburao Bagul who had personally participated in the movement of dalit laboureres and who expressed himself clearly and logically.

The inaction of all factions of the Republican Party against the social injustice was conspicuous. Except for support by one or two from the party, the other leftist parties were indifferent.

Dalit writers began to realize more and ore that there was no point in merely writing provocative poetry against the injustice They had become familiar with the Black movement and literature in the U.S.A. and were greatly attracted to it.

The result was that youths Namdeo Dhasal, Arjun Dangle and J.V. Pawar took the initative and established the Dalit Panterhs in Bombay (presently Mumbai). The Dalit Panter movement was formed under the leadership of Raja Dhale as president, Namdev Dhasal as defense minister and J V Pawar as its general secretary. The Panthers observed Independence Day that year, which incidentally was the silver jubilee of Independence, as Black day and black-flag demonstrations were held at various places in Bombay. To protect their fellow dalits from violence and atrocities, they were prepared, if necessary to adopt violent strategies. Thus they chose to directly confront the oppressors.

The Dalit Panthers, embellishing the concept of dalits emancipation in their manifesto emphasized that a complete revolution was needed. ‘We do not want a little place in the brahmin alley. We want the rule of the whole land, we are not looking at persons but at systems and change of heart, liberal education etc, will not end out state of exploitation. When we gather a revolutionary mass, rouse the people out of the struggle, the giant mass will become tidal wave’ The Dalit Panthers recognized the contribution of Mahatma Jyotiba Phule and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.

The dalits of Maharashtra got acquainted with the Panthers and the discontent of several years began to explode.

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