Category Archives: Buddhism

भीम दोहे


भीम दोहे
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नीच समझ जिस भीम को, देते सब दुत्कार |
कलम उठाकर हाथ में, कर गये देश सुधार ||१||

जांत-पांत के भेद की, तोड़ी हर दीवार |
बहुजन हित में भीम ने, वार दिया परिवार ||२||

पानी-मंदिर दूर थे, मुश्किल कलम-किताब |
दांव लगा जब भीम का, कर दिया सब हिसाब ||३||

ऊँचेपन की होड़ में, नीचे झुका पहाड़ |
कदम पड़े जब भीम के, हो गया शुद्ध महाड़ ||४||

पारस ढूँढें भीम को, आँख बहाये नीर |
पढे-लिखे हैं सैंकड़ों, नही भीम सा वीर ||५||

दिल में सब जिंदा रखे, बुद्ध, फुले व कबीर |
छोड़ वेद-पुराण सभी, भीम हुए बलवीर ||६||

झूठ और पाखंड की, सहमी हर दुकान |
भेदभाव से जो परे, रच दिया संविधान ||७||

रोटी-कपड़ा-मकान का, दिया हमें अधिकार |
पूज रहे तुम देवता, भूल गये उपकार ||८||

भेदभाव का विष दिया, सबने कहा अछूत |
जग सारा ये मानता, था वो सच्चा सपूत ||९||

भीम तब दिन-रात जगे, दिया मान-सम्मान |
लाज रखो अब मिशन की,अर्पित कर दो जान ||१०||

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विद्यार्थी चाहे, तो इन दोहों का विद्यालय कार्यक्रमों में सस्वर वाचन कर सकते हैं |

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4th February 1956 in Dalit History – Dr. Ambedkar renamed “Janata” newspaper as “Pradbuddha Bharat”


During his lifetime Dr. Ambedkar started many newspapers and magazines. In 1930, Dr. Ambedkar started a journal named, “Janata (The People)”. This magazine lived for 26 years. After that the magazine’s name was changed to “Prabuddha Bharat (Enlightened India)” on 04 February 1956. The names of the magazine which Dr. Ambedkar published had the reflection and the emphasis of the direction of his movement at a particular time. He changed the name of Janata to Prabuddha Bharat when he was in the process of launching the massive historic conversion to Buddhism.
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8th January in Dalit History – Buddhist Flag Day


8th Jan8th January

Read more about Buddhist Flag and what its different colors represent from here.

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‘Jay Bhim Se’ song by ‘Dhamma Wings’


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Buddhist Converts can claim Scheduled Caste Status


Government of India order. One doesn’t need to worry that after conversion he/she will lose reservation or other benefits.

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Source – karthiknavayan.wordpress.com

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Japan-born Buddhist monk battling the caste dragon


The room goes silent, and when I look up from my recording equipment, an otherworldly figure has entered the room. Its eyes sit deep in their sockets underneath a wrinkled forehead. A strong jaw completes the image of a figure imbued with an iron will. Its clean-shaven head drops in a bow, its thin, stone-like lips open and an old man’s coarse voice emerges from somewhere deep inside: “Konnichi wa.

The man standing in front of me, holding a staff and wearing a simple robe, is Surai Sasai, a Japanese Buddhist monk on a lifelong quest for justice in India. In a few moments he will address a large audience about his mission in the South Asian nation, where he has spent most of his adult life. I hear the murmur from the audience waiting in the adjacent lecture hall. The meeting, on a fine June day, is hosted by the famous Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism, at the sect’s headquarters on Mount Koya in Wakayama Prefecture. Sasai sits down, and I feel a pang of insecurity. Can I ask a man like this anything, without the risk of offending him?

“He’s got the kind of face I’d never seen before,” says Mitabi Kobayashi, 43, in an interview some days later. Kobayashi is a filmmaker who has been following Sasai for the past 10 years. “I first saw it in a magazine in 1997,” he continues. “Thinking it must be a photograph from sometime just before the war, maybe a little later, I was stunned when I learned the picture was only 8 years old. When I learned later about his life’s mission, I knew I had to do a documentary on him.”


In a Kobayashi film from 2009, we see Sasai on stage back in India, speaking to hundreds of Indians in orange robes, preparing them for a mass conversion to Buddhism.

“You are about to make some severe vows!” he shouts, holding a microphone. “From now there will be no drinking, no sleeping with women!” The mass of shaved, dark-skinned men in orange seems undeterred and listen calmly.

Sasai’s quest in India has many elements of the classic “Hero’s Journey” monomyth: There is the search for the boon (justice and equality), the battle with the dragon (the caste system), the great sacrifice (giving up a comfortable life in Japan) and the sharing of the treasure with the community. Sasai is building his community among the Dalits, a people who have endured unrelenting discrimination for having been born into India’s “untouchable” caste. He claims to have converted 2 million Dalits, giving them a new chance in life. This has made him famous in Indian Buddhist circles.

“The Shudra [low-caste] people were not treated as human beings, and conversion was their way out,” says Rakesh Sade, an Indian Buddhist and admirer who has come to listen to Sasai. “Religion should be for human beings, not the other way around. If it does not give us the right to live as humans, it is better to leave. Not even our children got decent treatment. They couldn’t sit in the classroom with the other pupils, but had to stay outside.”

The ill treatment of children is but one of endless examples of routine discrimination against the Dalits. To them, Sasai is a hero.


Born in 1935 in the village of Sugao in present-day Niimi, Okayama Prefecture, Sasai had difficulty settling into an ordinary lifestyle.

“Sasai likes to tell a story from the first days after the war,” says Kobayashi. “He was still a child, but he just couldn’t come to terms with what he saw as the ultimate stupidity and waste of the war effort. To make a point, he scribbled ‘Serves you right!’ on the walls of houses in his village, and he was rewarded with a good beating by the villagers.”

After high school, Sasai started to work as a salesman, selling medicine. “He was what we’d call a furiitā (part-timer) in Japan today,” says Kobayashi.

I ask Sasai how he views his life: “It was an existence of struggling in the mud, of inflicting wounds on myself again and again,” he replies in his weathered voice. “Today I can only say I am grateful for how life turned out.”

It is a gracious reply to a polite question. But Sasai was not born a saint, and perhaps that is what gives him his humanity. In fact, he has all the hallmarks of a maverick.

I see this side to him in a film clip from an earlier visit, when he gets hold of a wooden training sword and starts swinging wildly, in all directions, until he falls over, ending up a kimono-clad heap of laughter on the ground. Or, when we join him in prayer outside the lecture hall, and he all of a sudden starts some sort of cheer-leading, slogan-shouting thing, and all the Indians in hats gathered around him raise their fists in the air and shout back in unison — what exactly, I have no idea, but it sounds like a war cry. Or, when one of his disciples gets too excited and Sasai lashes out at him, in front of us all, “You need to learn how to use Buddha’s language properly!” addressing the poor man as omae, a rather rude form of “you” in Japanese.


Sasai has hundreds of thousands of disciples in India, where he started his missionary work in 1967. But that success did not come easily.

“India is not an easy land to live in, in one sense,” he says. “There are simple things you have to put up with, such as the food: chapati, day in and day out — chapati and dal (a stew of lentils or peas, etc.). But that is a small sacrifice. Most of all I have suffered because of my naivete. Men like me get taken advantage of, sometimes even by people they trust. I’ve lost count of how many times I’ve been fooled.”

Still, there is no bitterness in his voice as he continues: “But who can blame these people? They think completely differently about these things. They even laugh when they themselves are fooled.”

If Sasai has felt betrayed, there is also room in his heart for sympathy.

“This is a people that cannot live without religion,” he says. “Good religion or bad, they must have it! India is the land of religion. And I think one reason may be that they were not isolated in an island nation like us Japanese, but were exposed to all kinds of influences on a dynamic continent. That’s probably why they listen to and respect us monks, and I love that.”

But in spite of this openness, there are also conservative forces at play in India, and the odds against Buddhism breaking the caste system seem formidable. If the original teachings of Buddhism are really more about political reform than religion, as some argue, serious conflict may be brewing.

The Buddha himself is said to have been opposed to the caste system, and there is good evidence that in the third century, Emperor Ashoka followed in his footsteps. Ashoka, regarded as one of the greatest of India’s rulers, united the country under Buddhist edicts.

“Ashoka was anti-Brahmin and anti-Hindu,” according to Richard Gombrich, emeritus professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford, referring to the traditional caste of clerics and teachers. “This is why Indian school books never mention his opposition to the caste system and to blood sacrifices. They are, quite correctly, considered to be antithetical to Hinduism. So the Brahmins, very cleverly, totally forgot him and totally buried him.”

Will they also bury Sasai? In fact, they have already tried. In India, it appears his political clout is a double-edged sword.

“In Nagpur, everyone knows Sasai for his religious leadership. But he is also known in the rest of India for his influence on powerful politicians,” says Kobayashi. “Hindu opposition is a constant. There has been harassment of aspiring Buddhist converts, and even assassination attempts on Sasai himself.”


Although the Dalits have historically suffered terrible discrimination, some have managed to escaped their predicament. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, popularly known as Babasaheb, was one of them. An influential social reformer, he became independent India’s first justice minister, helped draft its first constitution and sought to eradicate the injustices of the caste system. Shortly before his death in 1956 he converted to Buddhism and initiated a mass conversion of Dalits to unshackle them from what he saw as Hindu discrimination. This re-energized Buddhism in India after centuries on the brink of extinction.

The year after Ambedkar’s mass conversion, Sasai, struggling to find direction, met a Buddhist priest in Yamanashi Prefecture and decided to enter the monkhood. Eventually he was sent to study in Thailand, where further challenges presented themselves — in the form of two women he became infatuated with. Ashamed of his failure, Sasai decided he could not return home, and instead traveled to India in 1967 to seek the right path.

The trip did not go well, and a year later Sasai was ready to give up on India. But then, one night, a man appeared to him in a dream, introducing himself to Sasai as Nagarjuna, an ancient Buddhist philosopher. The man gave him directions to find the Steel Stupa, a sacred site in Buddhism, which seemed to point to the vicinity of the central Indian city of Nagpur.

On arrival in Nagpur, Sasai met a man who had organized Ambedkar’s mass conversion ceremony in the city in 1956. Shown a photo of Ambedkar, Sasai became convinced that it was the Dalit intellectual who appeared in the dream in disguise. But somehow, the image of Nagarjuna would not leave him.


If you walk through the immense burial grounds on Mount Koya past centuries-old crumbling graves slumbering in the shade of huge, ancient cedar trees, you will end up at a memorial hall called Oku-no-in, one of Japan’s most intensely spiritual places. There, entombed in the basement, is the mummified body of Kukai, the founder of the Shingon sect. Followers believe he has been in a state of unconscious deep hibernation since 835, waiting for the arrival of the next Buddha.

Kukai journeyed to China to bring home a scripture that is at the very core of esoteric Shingon Buddhism — the Mahavairocana Sutra. The sutra had traveled all the way from India, where, according to Shingon teachings, it was received by Nagarjuna several centuries earlier in the Steel Stupa. Kukai, it turns out, was the last in a lineage of eight masters of the sutra across the world.

And now, Sasai is here at Mount Koya to talk about the sutra’s place of origin — the Steel Stupa — which he claims he has found at the Mansell ruins, 14 km outside Nagpur. However, Sasai’s claims have had a mixed reception among Japanese scholars so far.

“They don’t seem to be too interested,” says Kobayashi. “Some came to investigate, but the research results often conflict with their own, so Sasai is stepping on their turf.”

Japan-born monk Surai Sasai leads a prayer ceremony at the headquarters of the Shingon Buddhist sect on Mount Koya, Wakayama Prefecture, on June 14. The portraits depict Buddha and Dalit social reformer Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. | CHRISTINA SJOGREN

Japan-born monk Surai Sasai leads a prayer ceremony at the headquarters of the Shingon Buddhist sect on Mount Koya, Wakayama Prefecture, on June 14. The portraits depict Buddha and Dalit social reformer Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. | CHRISTINA SJOGREN


In spite of his success as a religious leader in India, there has been surprisingly little interest in Japan in Sasai’s approach to Buddhism. But why is this?

One scene in Kobayashi’s film about Sasai’s 2009 visit to Japan is quite revealing. In the documentary, there is a Buddhist meeting, and the monks are gathered to dine, filling the room with cigarette smoke, drinking generously from beer bottles. Apparently unable to accept this behavior, Sasai is eating alone in an adjacent room.

Attitudes toward wealth are another source of contention.

“I feel Buddhism in Japan is basically dead,” says Sono Kumar, an Indian Buddhist who took part in the June event at Mount Koya. “As a monk, you should not marry, have sexual relations or crave for money. Here they wear a robe to the temple and jeans at home. I feel they use their religion for business. I ask people about this but they never have any good answers.”

What does money mean to Sasai? During his 2009 visit, Kobayashi’s camera gives us a glimpse of a man both happy to see the progress of his homeland and alienated by it.

“In Japan, you need money to live,” he says, looking out at the landscape whizzing by outside through the shinkansen window. “But in India, it’s not all that important. After all, you can basically lay down and sleep wherever you like.”

At this point, I thought I could trace a hint of sadness in his stony face.

The Indians I spoke to stressed that education is central to the task of making people appreciate the deeper values of Buddhism. Sasai agrees.

“It is extremely hard to get people among the older generations to open up to new thinking,” he says. “A grandmother or grandfather may convert on paper, but it will take three generations before you can talk about ‘Buddhists’ in the true meaning of the word. The young are freed from the Hindu view of the world. They haven’t studied the Hindu scriptures. So you must be patient and wait for real change.”

Educated Indians have been coming to Buddhism in significant numbers recently, but many apparently prefer “lighter” forms of it, and use it chiefly as a means of stress relief. Sasai is confident, however, that his grass-roots movement will make a difference:

“India’s history is about to change,” he enthuses. “Buddhism is truly coming back in earnest. It’s nothing less than a revolution! And it’s all thanks to one man — Ambedkar.

“I am just a clown, someone who dragged himself out of the p—- and crap and was lucky enough to find meaning in India. But consider Ambedkar’s contributions to the constitution, to equality, to bringing back into the limelight the worldview of the Buddha. Finally, many of the underprivileged in India can live a decent life.

“And it may take another 100 years or more before it happens, but one day India will wake up and and once again find itself a Buddhist nation.”

Source – Japantimes

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Top 7 android apps on Dr. Ambedkar, Dalits and Indian Buddhists


Few days back, I write on 15 books that every Dalits must read, in this post I will be listing top 7 android apps on Dr. Ambedkar, Dalits and Indian Buddhists that every Dalit-Bahujans should have on mobile!

Rise of technology has given us great opportunities to come closer to each other and fight together against the injustice and fight against the crimes committed against Dalits. I have noticed many young people very much active on social networking sites but it saddens me sometimes to see that they are busy in spreading and posting things which are not related to our mission or things which have no meaning!

[Tweet “We must always be ready to use the technology for the betterment of society. “]

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As, whatsapp, facebook etc on mobiles have become popular, many android apps on Dr. Ambedkar, Dalits and Buddhism have come up. Here is the list of android apps, what I think are worth trying.

  1. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar  – You can get Quotes of Dr. Ambedkar, 22 vows, important events in life of Dr. Ambedkar, and few books written by Dr. Ambedkar
  2. Amritbani Satguru Ravidass Ji – Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji is a holy book of the Ravidassia Religion. It is in Punjabi and it has teachings (Gurbani) of Shri Guru Ravidas Ji.
  3. Buddha’s Life Changing Lessons – It has only 20 pictures with messages of Buddha, There are 20 lessons to changing your mind, your mood and your habits that will, in turn, change your entire life. I like the app because pictures are just wow!
  4. Lord Buddha TV – Live streaming of Lord Buddha TV channel.
  5. Bahujan Samaj Party – Information about Bahujan Samaj Party.
  6. Dr. Ambedkar Quiz – App has good questions, though I struggled to find out the correct answers in the app as app doesn’t show answers!
  7. Ambedkar and Buddhism – It is a scanned book by Sangharakshita and worth reading.

There are many other apps on Dr. Ambedkar and Buddhism and there are some apps where you can read books written by Babasaheb also. I still believe there is need of more mobile apps as I couldn’t find any app on Saheb Kanshi Ram, Guru Kabir, Guru Tukaram etc, many more apps can be created on all these Dalit-Bahujans ideals.

Do you have any favorite app related to Dalit-Bahujans? Let us know in the comments.

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Buddhist Heritage in Ancient Punjab


Prior to the partition of Indian sub-continental in August 1947, Punjab was the land of the five rivers: Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelam. Then, it was divided into two halves-East Punjab(India) and West Punjab (Pakistan). The East Punjab was further divided on linguistic basis on 1st November, 1996 into three states of Punjab, Haryana and Himanchal Pradesh.

Buddhist came to Punjab through the Buddha himself and gained a good hold in the Punjab-Gandhara region within 300 years of the Mahaparinirvana of the Buddha in 483 B.C. There after, for more than 1,000 years, Buddhism was the predominant religion of the people of the region. During that period, a galaxy of Buddhist saints, scholars, artists, poets and philosophers like Nagasena, Asvaghosa, Asanga and Vasubandhu not only enriched the culture of the North-West region but also influenced and moulded the destiny of Buddhism kings of India: Milinda, Kanishka and Harsha flourished in the united Punjab, while the fourth, the most renowned Buddhist Emperor, Ashoka also started his career in the Punjab. Later, under the weight of political and religious upheavals, Buddhism disappeared from the plains but it managed to survive in some hilly tracts in the present day Himachal Pradesh.

In the present day Punjab, Tsang, the celebrated Chinese pilgrim, who was in India for 14 years from 630 AD to 643 AD, visited three cities- Chinapatti, Jalandhar and Satadru.

1. Chinapatti: has been identified with the modern Patti in Amritsar district. It was so known because it was the winter residence of Kanishka’s Chinese hostages. Here, the pilgrim saw ten monasteries full of monks. He stayed here for 14 months, from January 634 to March 635 and studied the Abhidhamma sastra with the famous scholar, Vinitaprabha.

2. Jalandhar: the city of Jalandhara visited by Hieun Tsang was the modern Jalandhara. Even at that time it was a large city and was the capital of the Jalandhar kingdom, also known as Trigarta. The king of the Jalandhara kingdom was a Buddhist and an ally of Harsha, the last Buddhist Emperor of India (606 -647 AD). According to Hiuen Tsang, his name was Wuddhi or Udito. While at Jalandhar in March-July 635 AD Hiuen Tsang was treated as a State Guest by the king of Jalandhara.

At Jalandhara, Hiuen Tsang saw about 50 viharas with about 200 monks. One of the well-known viharas was known as Nagardhana in which resided Venerable Chandravarma, a famous Buddhist scholar of those times. Hiuen Tsang stayed in this vihara for four months and studied with Chandravarma a commentary known as Prakarana-Pada-Vibhasa-Sastra. Hieun Tsang again visited Jalandhar in 643 AD when he was on his way back to china. In fact, Harsha had charged king Udito to conduct the pilgrim in safety to the froniers.

3. Satadru: Satadru was another name of the river Sutlej and in olden days it also denoted a kingdom, the capital of which was Satadrue, now identified with Sanghol, near Sirhind. Here, Hiuen Tsang saw ten sangharamas but the halls were deserted and cold, with very few priests. Here, Asoka had also constructed a stupa which was still standing at the time of Hiuen Tsang’s visit.

Sanghol Village in Fatehgarh Sahib District

SANGHOL

Out of the three places described by Hiuen Tsang, only Satadru or Sanghol has been discovered and excavated in modern Punjab. Sanghol is 65 kms by road from Ludhiana and 40 km from Chandigarh on the Ludhiana – Chandigarh road. Sanghol is 16 km by road from Sirhind railway station.

The most important monument unearthed at Sanghol by the experts of the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Punjab is the stupa and the monastery complex4. The stupa, which appears to have been first built by Asoka in the 3rd century B.C, is on the pattern of Dhamma – Chakra (Wheel of Law). The cylindrical stupa is of 16 metre diameter on a 17 metres square platoform – the pradakshina or circumambulation of the stupa raised at height. There is also a surkhi or murram pathway about 5.34m. in width all around the stupa. In the east is a paved pathway along which a number of votive stupas of solid mud were erected by the devotees.
From the central portion of the stupa were recovered a tooth, ashes and some bones as also the bottom portion of a relic casket-most probably the body relics of the Buddha. The excavation also yielded a lid with a Kharosthi legend of 1st -2nd century B.C. Upasaka Ayabhadra mentioned in the legend may have been responsible for enshrining the relics in the stupa.

The priceless find at Sanghol, which has put it prominently on the archaeological map of the Kushana period from the railing around the stupa on the square platform. These railing pillars were found in a pit between the monastery and the stupa on February 2, 1985. The valuable parts of the railing include 4 corner pillars, 58 upright pillars, 7 double sided pillars, 35 cross bars and 13 coping stones.

On the four corner pillars one is with Dharma-Chakradhvaja, two with Simbadhvaja and the last with stupa and devotees. The upright pillars have beautiful carvings of Yakshis, an Upasaka (a lay devotee), a Chakravartin (a royal devotee). The coping stones mounted on the railing pillars are decorated with a series of arched windows containing Buddhist symbols like dharmachakra, lotus, worship of the relic caskets, worship of Buddha’s bowl and other auspicious symbols. The cross bars which joins the tow pillars are decorated with lotus medallions. The Singhol sculptures are considered as the best specimen of the Buddhist art of 2nd century A.D.

During the excavation in the adjoining areas, a broken portion of stones from a gateway of the stupa, depicting jataka stories in red stone was also recovered. Coins of all the kings of the Kushana dynasty and also seals and sealing in Kharosthi and Brahmi scripts have been discovered. A large citadel with internal and external moats has also been unearthed. The monastery is yet to be fully excavated.

OTHER BUDDHIST SITES

Some Buddhist remains found in Ludhiana district are at Tihara, a place in the north-west corner of Jagraon Tehsil. Tihara has been indentified with the city of Varat mentioned in the Mahabharata. On the mounds here a large number of small square copper coins have been found having on one side the Buddhist5 wheel and on the other the names of the Rajas in old Sanskrit. Besides coins, impressions of seals in burnt clay, large bricks, dice glazed pottery and many other antiquities, including the impressions of coins of the Yaudheyas in clay also been found. Another place important Buddhist point of view in this Tehsil is Arura, which lays a little north of Bhadar and about 10 miles south of Jagraon. “The old tank called Raniyana near Arura is frequented by numerous pilgrims. People say that the ancient name of this place was Ahichatta, and that its ruler, Raja Buddhamati, composed a work in Prakrit, entitled Dharma Katha, which is still used by the Puja tribe in the District.”6

AMRITSAR

Sikhism is younger to Buddhism by over 2000 years as Guru Nanak, its founder was born in 1469AD whereas the Buddha lived in the sixth century BC. In spite of that, and the fact that Sikhism arose when almost all traces of Buddhism had disappeared from India, the religion of the Buddha can be said to have left its mark on the Sikh religion.

In the hey day of Buddhism, the Viharas were the places where not only monks but lay people also could get food and shelter, whenever in need. The system of ‘Guru Ka Langar’ food for everybody in vogue in the Gurudwaras seems to have been adopted by the Sikh Gurus by taking cue from the Buddhist tradition prevalent amongst some yogis. Further, the Gurus seem to have constructed the Golden temple, Amritsar with four gates on the pattern of the Buddhist Viharas. Prior to the rise of Buddhism, the temples had only one gate. The Buddhists introduced the practice of four gates with a view to emphasize equality i.e. the Viharas were open to all.

The Buddhist heritage has passed on to the Sikhs in another form also. The Sikhs consider the tank in the Golden Temple, Amritsar as the most sacred. This tank was a small take when Guru Ram Das, the fourth Guru, per chance discovered it. He acclaimed it Amritsar, the tank of nectar. This tank is said to be Buddhistic in origin. It has science been identified as the famous lake of Padmasambhave. St. Padmasambhave hailed from the swat Valley and was a powerful apostle of Tantrism. He flourished in the eighth century and did a lot to propagate Buddhism in Tibet where he went in 747 A.D. The Tibetan considers him as their Guru and regards him next only to the Buddha. The name padmasambhava means the lotus born. According to a Tibetan tradition7, Padmasabhava was found by the king Indraodhi or Indrabhuti of Udyana or Urgayan on the pethls of a lotus flower in this lake.         

In olden days the pilgrims from Tibet used to visit this lake while on pilgrimage to other Buddhist shrines in the Punjab. In this connection we reproduce below what the famous Italian scholar, G.Tucci, has said about the itinerary of the Tibetan pilgrims who came to India in the 13th century.

“At the time of Stag Ts” a rasa pa there was a regular intercourse between Jalandhra and Tibet as there is even now. There is hardly any doubt that this was chiefly due to the travels of Tibetan pilgrims of the Dsogs C’en and especially bka rgyad pa sects who used to visit the sacred places of Buddhist tradition. After God Ts an pa, their number must have considerably increased; today there is a regular intercourse along the routes and the tracks of Western Tibet.
From there, they descend to the holy tirthas of the Buddhist tradition, to Amritsar where the tank of the Golden Temple is believed to be the lake of Padamasambhava, to Bodh Gaya, to Sarnath.8

So there is indeed a rich heritage of Buddhism in modern Punjab.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Note: This has been taken from my book “Buddhist Sites and Shrines in India : History, Art and Architecture,” Published by Sri Satguru Publications-Indian Books Centre, Delhi, 2003.
1-3. Samuel Beal, Buddhist records of the Western World, translated from the Chinese of Huen Tsang, 1981 Reprint.
4. S.P.Gupta, Kushana sculptures from Sanghol 1st, 2nd century A.C. Vol.1, New Delhi, 1986.
5-6. Punjab District Gazetter, Ludhiana district, 1908.
7. L.A.Wadell, Budhism of Tibet, 1959 Reprint.
8. G.Tucchi, Travels of Tibetan pilgrims to the Swart Valley, 1940.

 Source – Ambedkarite Buddhist

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